The malaria bouquet

Malaria-infected red blood cells (RBC) express the pathogen protein PfEMP1 (yellow) on their surface. IgM (violet) and PfEMP1 form a bouquet that makes the cell more infectious and more prone to attract other still-uninfected red blood cells. Moreover, the other immune system proteins (such as the complement, C1q, pink) are not able to be recruited and kill the infected cell. 

Free for anyone to re-use, but must be credited to OIST.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

Download full-resolution image