Diagram of perovskite solar module and microscope image of the surface of the perovskite active layer
Perovskite solar cell devices require multiple layers to function. The active perovskite layer absorbs sunlight and generates charge carriers. The transport layers transport the charge carriers to the electrodes, releasing a current. The active perovskite layer is formed from many crystal grains. The boundaries between these grains, and other defects in the perovskite film, such as pinholes, lower the efficiency and lifespan of the solar devices.
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